# application of statistics in business with examples

In judgemental sampling, the population element is selected with a specific attribute based on the judgment of the research. Data Science with R Language Certification Training, "The course helped me to improve my skill set and gain the confidence to handle the role of an analyst. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. We see the data given in the table. So we can say there is a 50% chance for the resultant of the toss to be a head. Probability value always occurs within a range of 0 to 1. Data collection can be done by various methods of observation, experimentation, and surveying. Let us now look at the steps involved in developing a sampling plan: We define the target population regarding the number of elements, sampling unit, extent and time. Measure of central tendency is a method of descriptive statistics which identifies with a single value. Explanation of hypothesis testing, probability sampling, probability theory and probability distributions. We would like to know if, in the recent years, there has been an increase in the average height of males in New York – this translates into the alternative hypothesis. It is the process of dividing the members of the population into homogeneous subgroups or strata before sampling. Suppose we have sales data for AC sale in last 300 days. Sample, as we have just learned, is a subgroup of the population from which information is collected. One of the most important applications of statistical analysis is in designing … The first stage is to develop control categories or quotas of population element so that different groups are represented in the total sample. The sample size was greater than 30, etc. I took a project overview class and it really helped sharpened...", "Excellent instructor with the ability to provide real world experience and insights. For example, let’s see this example of a car agency guy who has 5 cars whose use in last 60 days is given in the table. The most basic application of statistics is to summarize and characterize large amounts of data. In the second stage, the sample elements are selected based on convenience or judgment to fill within the quota. This lesson gives a brief introduction to this broad field. There are three measures of central tendency –. is the mean, and n is the number of samples. The single value is generally the central position of the distribution, and hence they are also known as measures of central location. It is very important to understand here that the alternative hypothesis is not validated, the test declares that the alternative hypothesis MAY be true, rejecting the null hypothesis. Consider you have a dataset with the retirement age of 10 people, in whole years: 55, 55, 55, 56, 56, … Descriptive statistics is the method where the data is analyzed to extract meaningful information from the data, like deducing patterns from the data. They are broadly classified into z-test, t-test, and f-test based on the test statistic. On a day-to-day basis, we conduct quality… They all had some or the other assumptions such as -. However, if you haven’t gotten to that point yet, here’s some information on statistics in the business field. There are a variety of hypothesis tests, which can be used to calculate the p-value using a test statistic. Probability distribution for a random variable gives information about how the probabilities are distributed over the values of that random variable. And this is only going to grow with new tools coming into the market. The tests validate the null hypothesis, or reject it in favor of an Alternate Hypothesis, Ha. Proportions, averages, that is why we talk of agriculture statistics, It is the most commonly used statistic and is a measure of how “spread” the distribution is. Descriptive statistics further consists of measure of central tendency and measure of dispersion and inferential statistics consists of estimation and hypothesis testing. Then, depending on the objective, financial results, time limit, and nature of the problem we have two types of sampling – probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Most often the results are shown in qualitative form as the name suggest. The two important assumptions are that –. So we find the relative frequency first and then plot the probability against the number of units sold. In the next section, we will discuss the mode of a distribution. It’s the purest form of sampling technique where every element has an equal opportunity for participation. This has helped m...", "It was Great!!! Let’s look at different probability sampling techniques. Statistical concepts and their application in business tutorial talks of business statistics and sample statistic. When people use statistics in real-life situations, it is called applied statistics. We have a dataset which has 6 numbers (3,3,4,5,7,8). The blocks in blue are below the median and blocks in white are above the median. After completing the Statistical Concepts And Their Application In Business Tutorial, you will be able to understand: How to develop a sampling plan and sampling methods, What Descriptive Statistics is and its components, The business usage of Descriptive Statistics via a Case Study, One-sided and two-sided hypothesis testing. The alternative hypothesis is generally the hypothesis that we are trying to prove. The sample should be representative of the general population. For example, a jury trial can be seen as a hypothesis test with a null hypothesis of “innocent” and an alternative hypothesis of “guilty.” One particularly interesting application of hypothesis testing comes from […] Inferential statistics, by contrast, allow scientists to take findings from a sample group and generalize them to a larger population. Cloudflare Ray ID: 5fd17b58dcb1e638 Statistics are based on studies: a search for possible connections between disparate facts that nonetheless have a connection. The t-test is used with mean as well, but the standard deviation must be known. Curious to know how R programming works? Emphasis on the tool...", Why Data Science Matters And How It Powers Business Value, Data Science vs. Big Data vs. Data Analytics. I was out of the workforce for a few months and ha...", "I have taken Simplilearn's Data Science course & will now be taking their CAPM program. 1) Accounting: The Public accounting firms use statistical sampling procedures when … It can be used for quality assurance, financial analysis, production and operations, and many other business areas. They have lower power than the parametric tests and hence are always given the second preference after the parametric tests. Today, there is hardly any business that functions without the use of statistics and statistical tools. The telecom company surveyed a sample of 1000 of its customers on all the above services. Definition of Statistics For the test of One Quantitative Response Variable – One Qualitative Independent Variable with two groups two independent sample t-test is used in parametric and nonparametric uses Wilcoxon Rank Sum or Mann Whitney U Test. The discount coupon will be applied automatically. Null hypothesis states that there is no difference, or = 0. It involves the selection of elements from an ordered sampling frame. In probability sampling, every element has an equal probability of being chosen in the sample, but, in non-probability sampling, every element doesn’t have an equal probability of being chosen. Sampling is broadly classified into probability and non-probability sampling. P-value can be defined as the probability that the calculated test statistic can take an extreme value as the observed value, given that the null hypothesis is true. The samples in the distribution have almost unequal variances. It’s a branch of mathematics that deals with the uncertainty of an event happening in the future. To quickly summarize what we have learned in this statistical concepts and their application in business tutorial, we have discussed: Descriptive statistics – Measures of Central Tendency and Measures of Dispersion, A business case study to understand the concepts of descriptive statistics, Various tests used in calculating the p-value, What is nonparametric testing and why is it used, Nonparametric alternatives for the usual tests of significance. As mentioned earlier, the t-test can be one sample, two sample or paired t-tests. Standard deviation is the square root of variance. By using historical data, managers can analyze past successes and failures. If we want to compare two variables measured in the same sample we would customarily use the t-test for dependent samples. The general values of alpha are 0.05 and 0.01. This is often best achieved by random sampling. The chart shows us how median is calculated. A population is an entire collection of objects or observations from which we may collect data. Statistics is the mathematical science involving the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. In our case, we have four numbers in our set. In the next section, we will calculate the median value. Now, let’s talk about probability distribution. Measures of dispersion describe the amount of heterogeneity or variation within a given distribution. Let’s look at an example of descriptive methods. This test is generally used where the number of samples is greater than 30. In this, the initial group of respondents is selected, usually at random or from contacts of the existing customers. The median is calculated by arranging the data set numbers in ascending or descending order. This would specify whether it is probability or non-probability procedure and also which type of sampling technique has to be chosen. In the next section, we will see how to assign probabilities. With mean being the most commonly used statistic. Here you can see the tabulation of the nonparametric and parametric test for better understanding and comparison. Data Science with R Language Certification Training course. All tests of significance begin with a null hypothesis, H0. Descriptive analytics look at what has happened and helps explain why. Hence five is the mean here. Quality testing is another important use of statistics in every area of life. Suppose we are given a sample dataset of heights of 100 males in New York, and their average height has been given as 5 feet 9 inches – which is the null value. These tests are typically focused on median rather than mean. If you remember your math classes, you will recall the concept of sets and subsets. Descriptive statistics are used to describe the total group of numbers. Marketing seeks to develop and retain a consumer base so products can be sold for a profit. To express a relationship between two variables one usually computes the correlation coefficient. Check out the Data Science with R Programming Course Preview. Probability of an event to happen is given by P(E) = Number of favorable occurrences divided by the number of possible occurrences. They are spread or dispersed around some central value, mostly the mean. Expressing this statement in statistical form, we have –. In the next section, we will look at sampling techniques. For example, for a data with outliers, the median is a better measure when compared to the mean. Statistics can describe markets, inform advertising, set prices and respond to changes in consumer demand. for the formation of suitable military and fiscalpolicies. The word ``statistics`` has various meanings, all of which are important to us. Some of these applications include: financial analysis, auditing, planning and econometrics. The tests can be broadly classified into one sided and two sided tests, and the results are decided by calculating the “p-value”. For each population, there are many possible samples.It is important that the investigator carefully and completely defines the population before collecting the sample, including a description of the members to be included. Statistics are often used in different areas of the labor field. Let’s take a simple example of tossing an unbiased coin: If an unbiased coin is flipped then what is the probability that its resultant is head? In the next section, we will discuss the measures of central tendency. Probability and non-probability sampling is explained below as-. In all the above tests, the null hypothesis states that there is no difference between means or variances, and the alternative hypothesis suggests otherwise. Two-sided hypothesis testing proposes an alternative hypothesis that the sample statistic is different compared to the given statistic; it does not matter if it is greater or lesser. Now let’s take an example to understand the topic better. Descriptive statistics methods involve summarizing or describing the sample of data in various forms to get an overall gist of the data. The alternative hypothesis states that there is a difference – either positive or negative, but not both. Two sample t-test is used when the compared groups are independent, and paired t-test is used when the compared groups are paired (example – the marks obtained by a student in the same subject before and after training). We will be using descriptive analysis to study customer spending to determine which services are most profitable and here we have a table of the number of customers, the minimum, and maximum value, mean and standard deviation of various telecom services. Predicting Emergencies. 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