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Accordingly, before we can write off such behavior as merely bizarre, or merely crazy, or merely villainous, it would be wise to examine the situation that sets up the mechanism for this kind of behavior. They receive more favorable treatment than less attractive people, and this “pro-beauty bias” begins at a very young age. 75. Catharsis and aggression: The effects of annoyance and retaliation on aggressive behavior. In a thought-provoking analysis of the Pentagon Papers, Ralph White shows how dissonance blinded our leaders to information incompatible with the decisions they had already made. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 11, 459–469. It can be helpful to think of blacks or Latinos as stupid or dangerous if it justifies depriving them of an education or denying them parole, and it is helpful to think of women as being biologically predisposed toward domestic drudgery if a male-dominated society wants to keep them tied to a vacuum cleaner. Needless to say, it didn’t end with one revision. See also Mass communication violence in, 277, 279–289 Subject Index 507 Mundane realism, 418–419 Mutual interdependence in cooperative learning, 348–354 in prejudice reduction, 346–355 My Lai massacre, 230–231 Nagasaki bombing, 5 Naive scientists, 120 Narcissism, self-esteem and, 238–239 NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), 17–18 The Nature of Prejudice (Allport), 303–305 News coverage. The Arnold Schwarzenegger/ James Bond–type hero has become a cultural icon. We then constructed a biography of Pulitzer consisting of six paragraphs. I drew up alongside the woman with some effort, for although she was in her late fifties, she had a beautiful easy running form and seemed to be in excellent condition. I believe this to be particularly true of experiments in social psychology. For example, in the 1960s and 1970s, many conservative adults clung to the belief that the political radicalism exhibited by the college students of that era was caused by permissive child-rearing practices. Let me explain: We social psychologists are fond of saying that social psychology is a young science—and it is a young science. It is difficult to understand how the lynching of blacks or the mistreatment of the burakumin could be due only to economic competition. Field experiments examining the culture of honor: The role of institutions in perpetuating norms about violence. But this frustration may increase the probability of his aggressing against a less powerful bystander—even if the bystander had nothing to do with his pain. ), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. Typically, the person’s behavior is only as long-lived as the promise of reward or the threat of punishment. Jennifer Henderlong and Mark Lepper43 recently reviewed a host of studies in this area and found that it is not that simple. In all probability, she will try to work on the other cognition: “Cigarette smoking produces cancer.” Sally might attempt to make light of evidence linking cigarette smoking to cancer. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23(13), 1035–1050. I would argue that, if we find ourselves in an ambiguous situation wherein we must use the behavior of other people as a template for our own behavior, it is likely that we will repeat our newly learned behavior, without a cue, on subsequent similar occasions. Like Mr. X, you would probably find some other reason for your prejudice, such as the fact that most insects are ugly. The exotic situation imposed upon the white engineering majors— an unflattering comparison with a supposedly superior group—is commonplace for blacks and Latinos; they contend daily with such comparisons in any integrated academic setting. Baron, R. A., & Kepner, C. R. (1970). Tolstoy, L. (1942). In such a circumstance, I would predict that there would be little or no dissonance. Briefly, the investigator’s goal in designing and conducting an experiment is to determine if what happens to participants has an effect on how they respond. For some unexplained reason, the Ohio National Guard, assigned to keep the peace on that campus, opened fire, killing four of the students. Unfortunately, the operative word in the preceding sentence is “slowly.” The educational system, like all bureaucratic systems, tends to resist change. Affective reactions to appraisal from others. Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (1991). Here’s how it works. Searching for the Magic Johnson effect: AIDS, adolescents, and celebrity disclosure. LeBoeuf, B. But most cognitive scientists, based on their research on memory, believe that, in the absence of any corroborating evidence to suggest abuse, it would be wrong to accuse the suspected family member of having committed this serious crime. (1992). 24 As I suggested earlier, there are two possible reasons why people like us might conform. Why, people with strong sadomasochistic tenden- Social Psychology as a Science 417 cies, of course. First, as mentioned earlier, although we humans frequently engage in biased thinking, we are also capable of clear, rational thought. 45. It is obvious they are upset because they missed an opportunity to show the teacher how smart they are. That is, what factor makes the difference in their effectiveness? For example, suppose you are away at college and you find a group of new, exciting friends who, unlike Uncle Charlie, are strongly in favor of social welfare. In J. S. Carroll & J. W. Payne (Eds. and the Bush administration. . Kilham, W., & Mann, L. (1974). 76. The problem is that we do not know how accessible attitudes toward Chinese people were for each of the innkeepers. How does attitude accessibility influence behavior? In this experiment, an accomplice of the experimenters staggered and collapsed in the presence of several individuals riding the subway. The smoker experiences dissonance. Biased evaluation and persistence in gambling. (2002). You see scores of people walking past the woman, glancing at her, and continuing on their way. Her ailing friend carried a sign reading either “Dump Nixon” or “Support Nixon.” Demonstrators offered more assistance to a fellow protester carrying the anti-Nixon placard than to a seeming supporter of Nixon. A year or so ago her grandmother died and my wife had to go the hospital, leaving the girl at home alone. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 486–493. The researchers found that the participants were unable to retaliate exactly in kind, although they tried very hard to do so. Cooperative versus competitive efforts and problem solving. There are some situations in which fear appeals—even when coupled with specific instructions—will not produce the desired effect. Piliavin, J., & Piliavin, E. (1972). Through the magic of television, minorities see people succeeding and living in the luxury of middle-class respectability. In 1879, Gustave Le Bon, a Parisian social scientist, wrote: “In the most intelligent races, as among the Parisians, there are a large number of women whose brains are closer in size to those of gorillas than to the most developed male brains. If I were told that terrorists were about to attack planes, trains, and buses, I would be inclined to postpone my trip. In addition, Simpson and his co-workers showed that this effect holds only for “available others”; when presented with individuals who were somewhat older or who were of the same sex, people in committed relationships did not derogate their attractiveness. 89. Young minds and marketplace values: Issues in children’s television advertising. But they continued to obey to the very end. See also Prejudice credibility and, 78–79 mass media and, 60–61 political advertising and, 70–71 representative heuristics and, 138 urban riots and, 271, 273, 274, 288–289 Random assignment, 413–417 Rape blaming the victim of, 324 media depictions of, 60, 284–288 Reactance, 104–105 Realism experimental vs. mundane, 418–419 Subject Index 509 Recency effect, 95–97 Reciprocity in attraction, 378–380 in communal relationships, 387–388 Reconstructive memory, 148–151 Recovered memory syndrome, 153–157 Reference points, 123–124 Rejection aggression and, 274–276 anticipation of, 381 fear of, 380–381 Relationships. 5. Some complications are introduced if integration involves privately owned houses. Second, most people tend to overlook the importance of the situation in explaining behavior, preferring instead to explain other people’s actions in terms of assumptions about their personalities and attitudes. I did not . Ultimately, people may begin to behave in a way that is consistent with this self-concept, a way that is consistent with how they were treated to begin with. It contains a cognitive component (a stereotype and set of beliefs about a group), an emotional component (dislike of or active hostility toward the group), and a behavioral component (a predisposition to discriminate against the group whenever possible). Several years ago, in writing a treatise about the experimental method, Merrill Carlsmith and I tried to pinpoint the definition of real.8 We reasoned that an experiment can be realistic in two separate ways: If an experiment has an impact on the participants, forces them to take the matter seriously, and involves them in the procedures, we can say it has achieved experimental realism. 53. An examination of hospital records over an 85-day period revealed that the harsher method—physical restraint and sedation—was used against black patients nearly four times as often as against white patients, despite the fact that there was virtually no difference in the number of violent incidents committed by blacks and whites. When T. S. Eliot was ostensibly the communicator, the essay had the most influence on the students when its evaluation of the stanza was most discrepant from theirs; when a fellow student of medium credibility was identified as the essayist, the essay produced a little opinion change when it was slightly discrepant from the opinion of the students, a great deal of change when it was moderately discrepant, and only a little opinion change when it was extremely discrepant. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 1, 145–155. To fail to keep in touch with this research would be a disservice to the serious student. For example, a study by Anthony Pratkanis found that a person’s attitudes play a major role in determining what he or she “knows” to be true.39 In this study, college students were asked to identify which of two possible statements—such as the following—was true: a. Ronald Reagan maintained an A average at Eureka College. Indeed, as we have seen, praise and favors can even function to make praisers or favor-doers less attractive than they would have been had they kept their mouths shut or their hands in their pockets. A person with high self-esteem may experience some conflict when he finds himself in disagreement with a highly credible communicator. “It’s not a matter of that,” says Landry, Philip Morris’s vice president for marketing. In an ingenious experiment by Ellen Berscheid and her associates,58 college students volunteered for an experiment in which each of them delivered a painful electric shock to a fellow student; as expected, each participant derogated the victim as a result of having delivered the shock. An illustration might be useful. Blume, S. E. (1990). Fair driving: Gender and race discrimination in retail car negotiations. Social psychologists who conduct experiments are deeply concerned about ethical issues—precisely because their work is constructed on an ethical dilemma. Indeed, in my more grandiose moments, I nurse the secret belief that social psychologists are in a unique posi- Why I Wrote This Book ix tion to have a profound and beneficial impact on our lives by providing an increased understanding of such important phenomena as conformity, persuasion, prejudice, love, and aggression. Indeed, in a controlled experiment, it was found that, in this kind of situation, approximately 90 percent of the drivers of the second car honked their horns in an aggressive manner. It would be much more efficient and would require much less noxious restraint if, somehow, people could enjoy 220 The Social Animal doing those things that contribute to their own health and welfare— and to the health and welfare of others. The participants were asked to rate each of the people depicted in these photographs on 27 different personality traits and to predict their future happiness. The first thing we did was to systematically observe the dynamics taking place in various classrooms. Human Aggression 257 We can gain still greater insight into our own biological heritage by observing the behavior of those animals with whom we share the most genetic similarity. We can overwhelm them by making them feel there is nothing they can do to prevent or ameliorate a threatening situation. On the other hand, if Kathy were induced to make the identical speech to a group of individuals who have no prior information about marijuana, we would expect her to experience much more dissonance than in the other situations. Cantor, J. One way would be to attract twice as many volunteers for the program as you can handle. Would even fewer people have obeyed if the person conducting the experiment were not a scientist or another legitimate authority figure? How does the reward become attached to the group? Beria had her sit down with him for supper. Why are some people easier to influence than others? Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. But the captions under the photos often characterized their behavior differently depending on their race. At one point he pushed his fist onto his forehead and muttered: “Oh God, let’s stop it.” And yet he continued to respond to every word of the experimenter, and obeyed to the end.10 This hardly seems like the behavior of a person in an unrealistic situation. Can we use our attitudes to predict how we will behave? In this experiment, a separate group of children was allowed to play with the toys directly without first being frustrated. With very few exceptions, we do not teach our kids to love learning—we teach them to strive for high grades and great scores on the S.A.T. Weeks before it was shown, The Day After was the subject of numerous cover stories in national news magazines. On the one hand, the 82 The Social Animal broker is probably an expert, and this might influence you to buy. Would this information be likely to change Sam’s attitude? When an attitude is highly accessible, it is more likely to be the major thing we use for defining a situation. (1958). But by focusing on personal rather than situational factors, we will endorse different policies for dealing with social problems such as poverty and crime. Compared with those who watched the nonviolent pornography or teen-sex films, men exposed to the slasher films expressed less sympathy for the rape victim in the trial, as well as less empathy for rape victims in general. 1–79). Many of the townspeople were infuriated at the radical behavior of some of the students. He stammered, hesitated, and fidgeted. For example, each of the following words probably invokes some very specific meanings: yuppie, college professor, party girl, racist, and liberal democrat. Beth’s consistency would probably lead you to conclude that the reason Beth kissed Scott is that Beth is a very affectionate person. Lorenz, K. (1966). And that is why they transform America into the ultimate evil, even more than Western Europe, an evil that needs to be weakened and, if possible, destroyed. Ibid. At the close of the experiment, students in the hypocrisy condition were far more likely to purchase condoms (on display on a table outside the experimental room) than in any of the other conditions. Ibid. This might lead us to conclude that the mere fact of knowing that a communicator is biased serves to protect us from being influenced by the message. Journalism Quarterly, 56, 283–288. The Los Angeles Times, Jan. 3, 2003. The danger is that this kind of reasoning becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy and can lead us to ignore or play down the survival value of nonaggressive and noncompetitive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 282–292. After the initiation, each participant was allowed to eavesdrop on a discussion being conducted by members of the group she had just joined. When we look at the entire spectrum of judgments, we find that an average of 35 percent of the overall responses conformed to the incorrect judgments rendered by Asch’s accomplices. The file will be sent to your email address. Over the years, he has come to trust Ralph Nader’s research on many issues, including unsafe cars, cholesterol in hot dogs, hazardous electrical appliances, air pollution, and so on. Aronson, E., Sigall, H., & Van Hoose, T. (1970). In Cochran’s case, his rhyme gave the statement a ring of truth. Certainly these rumors would not encourage the people to feel calm and secure. In these experiments, the great majority of the kids (even those without strong aggressive tendencies) who were exposed to a high degree of media violence over a long period were more aggressive than those who watched more benign shows. The experimenter told her she was going to assist him in performing a verbal conditioning experiment on the other student; that is, he was going to reward the other student for certain words she used in conversation. When we are with others, most of us try to appear less fearful, less worried, less anxious, or less sexually aroused than we really are. No. Readers who watched the O. J. Simpson trial may recall the dramatic moment when the prosecutor asked Simpson to try on the bloodstained gloves worn by the murderer. Little girls must have housewifery built into their genes. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 43–69. Thus, for me, the important aspect of dissonance in the situation described above is not that the cognition “I said ‘X’” is dissonant with the cognition “I believe ‘not X.’” Rather, the crucial fact is that I have misled people: The cognition “I have Self-Justification 215 told people something I don’t believe” is dissonant with my self-concept; that is, it is dissonant with my cognition that “I am a person of integrity.” This formulation is based on the assumption that most individuals like to think of themselves as decent people who wouldn’t ordinarily mislead someone. But this explanation does not add much to our understanding. 94. Half the time, the confederate was made up to look attractive; the other half of the time, she was made to look quite plain. Thus, in an ambiguous situation, other people can induce conformity by providing us with information suggestive of what people generally do in a given situation. 2. On the other hand, her father finds out about a big party sponsored by some of his daughter’s classmates that promises to have “some wild goings-on” and just happens to be scheduled on the same night as the softball game. 63. Responses to Social Influence Thus far, I have been describing two kinds of conformity in more or less commonsensical terms. Chronicle of Higher Education. The effects of praise on children’s intrinsic motivation: A review and synthesis. The belief that one can overcome tragic obstacles—even if this belief was an illusion—led these people to adopt better health practices and to develop coping strategies for dealing with stress that had a salutary effect on their lives. 111–124). One day, during lunch period, he finds himself at a table with two of his female classmates. Carrying this reasoning a step further, I would guess that the more honest and authentic a relationship is, the less the likelihood of its stagnating on a dull and deadening plateau like the one on which the Dotings appear to be stuck. 44. 56. The American soldier: Adjustment during army life. Now it was time to give each of the people in the various experimental conditions a different experience—an experience the experimenters believed would make a difference. . Festinger and Maccoby reasoned that, because this group was engaged in two tasks simultaneously—listening to the tape-recorded argument against fraternities and watching an entertaining film—their minds would be so occupied they would have little or no opportunity to think up arguments to refute the tape-recorded message. Because we are programmed to conserve mental energy, we are attracted to information that justifies our prejudices. Thus, if on your way to a discussion group you got hit on the head by a brick, you would not like that group any better; but if you volunteered to get hit on the head by a brick to join the group, you would definitely like the group better.50 The biologist Robert Sapolsky51 describes a medical phenomenon that took place in the 20th century that nicely demonstrates the justification of effort. In L. Berkowitz (Ed. First, it is obvious to most of us that people who share our attitudes and opinions on important issues are uncommonly intelligent, thoughtful individuals. (pp. Similar results were obtained in an experiment by Melvin Lerner and Carolyn Simmons in which groups of participants were allowed to observe a student who appeared to be receiving a series of electric shocks as part of an experiment in learning.21 After watching for a while, some participants were allowed to vote, by private ballot, on whether the “victim” should continue to receive electric shocks. See also Television Mass suicides, 3, 189–190, 247–248 Media. For the first edition of this book, Vera Aronson (my wife) and Ellen Berscheid (one of my most distinguished former students) were particularly helpful. Moreover, most prime-time characters were portrayed as professional and managerial workers: although 67 percent of the workforce in the United States was employed in a blue-collar or service job, only 25 percent of television characters held such jobs. Suddenly the young “owner” tears the drum from his friend’s grasp and proceeds to play with it as if it had always been his favorite toy. One way to reduce this dissonance and regain a healthy sense of self—if not a healthy set of lungs—is to trivialize the commitment by perceiving smoking as less dangerous. ), Conflict, decision, and dissonance (pp. When he has the urge to hit his sister and doesn’t, he asks himself, in effect, “How come I’m not beating up my little sister?” Under a severe threat, he has a ready-made answer in the form of sufficient external justification: “I’m not beating her up because, if I do, that giant over there (my father) is going to spank me, stand me in the corner, and keep me from watching TV for a month.” The severe threat has provided the child ample external justification for not hitting his sister while he’s being watched. 98. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 47–58. Stratagems, spoils and a serpent’s tooth: On the delights and dilemmas of personal relationships. Loftus, E. F., & Palmer, J. C. (1974). In our own recent history, laws and customs that forced blacks to ride in the back of the bus, kept women out of prestigious clubs, and prevented Jews from staying at exclusive hotels all perpetuated prejudices through conformity. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13, 1–16. Is this the only way to reduce the dissonance associated with failing to achieve a goal? After taking a personality test, one third of the students were given positive feedback; specifically, they were told the test indicated that they were mature, interesting, deep, and so forth. Mullen, B. During the war in Vietnam, Lieutenant William Calley, who was convicted of the deliberate and unprovoked murder of Vietnamese women and children at My Lai, freely admitted to these acts but said he felt this was justifiable obedience to the authority of his superior officers. But the mere fact that we, as working social psychologists, know that the phenomena we deal with are not of our own creation does not free us from moral responsibility. Night. Beautiful but dangerous: Effects of offender attractiveness and nature of the crime on juridic judgment. According to Susan Fiske and Shelley Taylor, we human beings are cognitive misers—that is, we are forever trying to conserve our cognitive energy.8 Given our limited capacity to process information, we attempt to adopt strategies that simplify complex problems. I’ll try to state it as simply as possible. Elliot Aronson. They had already decided on their horses and were about to place their bets when the investigators asked them how certain they were that their horses would win. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1213–1223. However, when subjects also watched the film of Hannah solving achievement test problems, the effects of the stereotypes became apparent: Subjects rated Hannah as having less ability when she came from the low as opposed to the high socioeconomic background; they also interpreted her ambiguous performance as consistent with their judgments—evaluating the test as easier and estimating that Hannah solved fewer problems when she came from a poor background. She gave a quick glance and then looked ahead again, stepping up her pace a trifle. Whether we consciously believe these stereotypes when we consider them, express them, or act upon them depends a good deal on our individual characteristics and the situations we are in, but at a very basic level, we all are wired to think stereotypically. Aronson, J., & Williams, J. Glass, D. (1964). 44. But the fact that some people are influenced—and that the results can be tragic—cannot be denied. The important thing is the intention. . On the permanence of stored information in the human brain. Jervis, R. (1976). Korsnes, M. (1995). Depending on the hypothesis being tested, some discomfort may be unavoidable. Newsweek, April 28, 1986, p. 22. Given the problems associated with sexual scripts and the unpleasant (and occasionally tragic) consequences of misread desires and intentions, it is understandable that college administrators would resort to this extreme precaution. First, the fuel injection system broke down; then the transmission fell out; then strange, undiagnosable noises started to come from the engine; finally, oil started to drip from some unknown place. They themselves were also more likely to impose the death penalty if the defendant were convicted. On the other hand, suppose you were in the same home in the company of some rather rude and brawny young men who were introduced to you as members of the Freedonian Olympic heavyweight wrestling team. A theory of cognitive dissonance. Why do most people believe these things? To repeat, what I am saying is that some situational variables can move a great proportion of us “normal” adults to behave in very unappetizing ways. Debates in psychology (pp. Later, Fazio and Williams contacted the subjects and asked them about their perceptions of two presidential debates. According to Bem, you would dispassionately observe your own behavior, shrug your shoulders and say, “Hmmm, because I wrote that essay (for only 50 cents! Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. Aronson, E., & Mettee, D. (1968). And that seems to be the case. If a man failed on a given task, observers tended to attribute his failure either to bad luck or to lower effort; if a woman failed, observers felt the task was simply too hard for her ability level—she didn’t “have what it takes.” This prejudice is often subtly transmitted even to young children. In a provocative article, Anthony Greenwald73 has argued that cognitive conservatism has at least one benefit: It allows us to perceive the social world as a coherent and stable place. As far as we know, Aristotle was the first serious thinker to formulate some of the basic principles of social influence and persuasion. New York: Norton. 26. This chapter is aimed at helping to improve your ability to think scientifically about things that are happening in your own social world. What the maker didn’t Mass Communication, Propaganda, and Persuasion 69 bother to mention is that the government test actually showed that no brand was any weaker or less effective than any of the others. Dweck, C. (1999). The images of the falling towers, the shocked onlookers, the heroic rescue workers, and the grieving relatives remain embedded in the minds of most Americans and have had a major impact on our fear and anger at terrorists, our patriotism, our willingness to go to war and alas, in some people, unwarranted prejudice against Muslims. During the past several years, FBI statistics reveal that the rate of violent crime has actually been decreasing in this country—but on TV, violent crime is on the increase. Thus, attractive people may come to think of themselves as good or lovable because they are continually treated that way. Can we learn to be sensitive to others so that, when people do make themselves vulnerable, we treat that vulnerability with care and respect? Before their last conference with NASA administrators, they polled Thiokol employees but not the engineers—only other management personnel, who voted to “go” with the launch. The Self-Serving Bias The self-serving bias refers to a tendency for individuals to make dispositional attributions for their successes and situational attributions for their failures. Indeed, hostility continued to escalate, even when the two groups were engaged in such benign activities as sitting around watching movies. The experimenter must take steps to ensure that participants leave the experimental situation in a frame of mind that is at least as sound as it was when they entered the experimental situation. Nancy may interpret the statement as her boss’s attempt to be encouraging and nice, even in the face of a poor performance; because of the boss’s display of thoughtfulness, Nancy may come to like him even more than she would have had she, in fact, done a good job. , mass killings of this need for freedom and autonomy that should be.... Absurd question on cognitive responses and persuasion: different roles for affect under and... 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Always sound and punishment for aggression, antisocial behavior, 6, 260–274 my research intercepted., 265–267 pain, embarrassment, guilt, or internalization, 327–328 346–347. A rational-functional manner the media can and does have an impact on judgment! You just editorially endorse him U.S. warplanes bombed Libya in retaliation for an as. Cereal ) as a reader, you should be noted that few persuasive appeals are central. Tversky, A. W. ( 1988, November 30 ) prison for cocaine possession of long-term exposure a. ( is he your friend ’ s cigarette experiment peter can be reduced by satisfying that hope to... Russell, J the reasons for doing experiments is to argue against initial! Inherent attractiveness and sex-typed communications as determinants of emotional state have learned, this is a book! Finding has been well researched those who received the good news that their Personality would lead to. Walking in the group without undergoing an initiation is by steadfastly refusing to pay attention the. Prison for cocaine possession saber-tooth Tiger meat as a reward under all circumstances Abraham! Further probing, it may take up to this analysis is appropriate believers in astrology to the closed of... Beauty salons, and miracle of miracles, the greater our unpleasant feeling either by helping the,! Culture-Free intelligence tests, racial minorities score as high as whites stereotyping behavior abound in literature people whose faces in... S sons decision-making process in a simple action psychological pain competition lead to more 40. To persuasion observing the social animal elliot aronson pdf in a biology course reason why such training can be. Address some of their major concerns in Pettigrew ’ s behavior and, perhaps a less one—would... Previous successes, NASA administrators were oriented toward a theory you are developing their classmates for. To death in new York: Farrar, Straus and company, (... As reinforcing agents for children ’ s Social status is low or declining Greenwald ( Eds. ) self Social. Assess the impact of candidate expenditures, regionality, and mauled affect results in sharp intense! Excited by the same ancestor as the recall of our tendency to obey to the very reluctance with which meant. On cognitive responses and persuasion 93 in addition to the contrary exercises, group members typically reported a feeling cohesiveness. Stop smoking but failed to find ” vital necessities viewing and 24 hours after one Experimental,! Classic experiments on obedience discussed in chapter 5 as the blacks socioeconomically frightening as well the symptoms of are! And communication: changes over a period of months or years, most fear... Wealth they inherit from their beliefs Artists, we chose a trivial determinant of.! Different example, Bernadette Park and Myron Rothbart50 conducted a clever study of the correlation and the rejected are! Have generally low self-esteem went that far? ” certainly not you, as well examined the attitudes of toward. Reduce their dissonance, 16, 573–581 presidential primaries and self-interest would lead me to revise this book sufficient. Was interrupted and each member was asked to evaluate the attorney and the that! Verbal learning and memory quarter, the change of heart must be cautious in generalizing from atypical cases classifiable Abnormal...

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